The colour white held great significance to Native Americans. It was the colour of the stone pipe used in the ratification of peace treaties, and white beads were used in bead conjuring. The White Spirit was associated with happiness and tranquillity, and in the southern direction, white was the corresponding colour.
Blue was also an important colour in Native American culture, representing tranquillity and heaven. However, the Blue Man or Blue Spirit was believed to bring difficulty and defeat by Cherokee shamans, and in the South Eastern United States, blue was thought to protect against evil spirits. As a Stone of Protection, turquoise blue was commonly used.
Red was a symbol of the earth element and the mountains, often used in body and face paint by Native Americans.